Annual daily peak flow - The largest daily flow recorded in a year (m3/s).
Average daily peak flows - Peak value of the daily discharge data, which are average values over 24 hours.
Arbitration - Process of resolving a dispute in which the parties present their cases to a neutral third party (an arbitrator), who then makes a decision for them within a clearly prescribed set of rules in order to resolve the conflict. If the parties are bound to accept the decision on the arbitrator, then this is referred to as binding arbitration.
Adjudication - Process of resolving a dispute in a court of law or by a similar entity with ultimate authority.
Adversarial approach - Approach to conflict in which parties view each other as an opponent to be defeated.
Arbitrator - A neutral person skilled in the use of dispute resolution that listens to the different sides of an issue and makes a decision for the parties.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) - General term for processes that resolve conflicts between parties by a means other than an adversarial or judicial process.
Agreement - A situation in which all parties have reached the same conclusion, accepted the same terms, and/or consented to a decision.It may also refer to the paper or document signed by all parties to demonstrate this situation.
Biodiversity off sets – actions taken to address a loss of biodiversity as a result of a project or intervention. For example, gazetting a protected area of forest to offset the loss of equivalent forest that has been inundated by a hydropower reservoir
Biomass removal – the removal of vegetation from a reservoir to address water quality risks and reduce reservoir emissions as a result of vegetation inundation and decay
Conflict - A condition in which two or more Differences can arise over values, interests, policies, strategies, economic purpose, etc. While parties often hold different goals and interests, most of the time, this does not present a problem. However, occasionally, parties clash when they pursue their own goals and interests. When they reach this point of incompatibility or non-reconciliation, we describe it as a dispute or conflict. parties have or perceive that they have incompatible interests, ideas, or positions. Conflicts can occur on many levels. Sources of conflict may include values and beliefs, facts and data, procedures, goals, relationships,andbehavior. Creating common understanding about the cause and nature of conflict is an important first step in its resolution
Conflict avoidance - Actions parties take to delay or evade conflict. Or when parties intentionally do not take any action to address or discuss the conflict. Avoidance usually results in key issues being ignored or delayed until they become much more difficult to address.
It may also lead to the escalation of a conflict. By not addressing each other directly, parties often proceed based on incorrect or wrong assumptions about each other’s interests and motivations. Example: Two parties disagree on a proposal but refuse to meet with each
other while using other channels to fight
for their positions.
Confidence interval - Arangeofvaluescentred on the sample estimate that is known to contain the true value with a given degree of confidence.
Conflict/dispute prevention - Specific actions undertaken by one or more parties to identify and preempt the likely presence or escalation of a conflict or dispute. Stakeholdersdonothavetoplayanofficialroleorhavestanding to be engaged in conflict prevention activities.
Prevention techniques seek to engage stakeholders early and continuously in the decision processes and often focus on relationship-building, information sharing, and dialogue among the parties. Example: Hotspots identification, information sharing, joint fact finding,
stakeholderconsultation, and public participation are all tools for prevention.
Conflict/dispute management - Approaching a conflict in a deliberate, fair,and efficient manner that prevents it from
escalating.Conflict management techniques are generally used once a conflict has emerged, but before positions are hardened and parties are still seeking to work together. Improving information,communication, and relationships are all
tools used in conflict management.Example: Parties approaching a difficult decision regarding seasonal variations in the use of fisheries decided to hold weekly meetings for a period of one
Conflict/dispute resolution - ct/dispute resolution -Process designed to resolve issues that have resulted in conflicts or disputes by addressing deep-rooted and underlying causes.
Consent – refers to a collective expression by the affected Indigenous Peoples communities, through individuals and/or their recognized representatives, of broad community support for the project activities that affect them. Such broad community support may exist even if some individuals or groups object to the project activities. Otherdefinitionsofconsentrefertoaneedforsignedagreementswithcommunityauthorised leaders or representatives of communities
Construction stage - During the construction stage, infrastructure safety issues include quality control processes to ensure infrastructure is constructed to design standards, flooding risks associated with temporary diversion and storage structures;construction related safety issues and the establishment of a monitoring baseline
Critical habitat - includes areas with high biodiversity value, including habitat required for the survival of critically endangered or endangered species;areashavingspecialsignificanceforendemicorrestrictedrange species; sites that are critical for the survival of migratory species;areassupportinggloballysignificantconcentrationsornumbersofindividualsofcongregatory species; areas with unique assemblages of species or which are associated with key evolutionary processes or provide key ecosystem services
Country of Origin - means the Member Country under whose jurisdiction a proposed project/activity is intended to take place.
Data and information exchange: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) reciprocal transfer of data and information among the member countries.
Data and information sharing: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) provision of full access to data and information maintained in the MRC-IS to the member countries through MRCS.
Design and operational flood and drought response measures – examples include maintenance of reservoir flood storage capacity, mechanisms to alter hydropower generation to respond to flood control needs
Design and operational provisions for fish management – includes fish passage structures; co-ordinated operations of cascades of dams; reregulation of reservoirs; and flexibility to modify dam operations in the future; reservoir fisheries and environmental releases to support habitat requirements
Design mitigation measures – examples include multi-level off takes, fish passage structures, navigation locks, sluice gates, reservoir design and full supply level, reregulation ponds,fish friendly turbines, reservoir flood storage capacity, reservoir and river bank protection measures in project design, oxygenation plants, transmission line and road route selection
Design stage - In the asset design,adherencewith safety standards and the expertise used in the design team to address various safety issues is an important consideration.Specialistsshouldinclude: engineering geologists, seismic experts, civil engineers, dam safety specialists, mechanical and electrical engineers and the use of independent expert review. The design stage should include identification of all potential failure points in the dam, power station and associated infrastructure and identify design and operational strategies to manage risks. There should be consideration of risks associated with other projects in a cascade and other events in the basin such as flood events
Dispute -Disagreements that take place between parties in conflict. Adisputeisthemanifestation, in words or actions, of unresolved conflict.
Disaggregated social data -data that is separated by social sub-groupings for example, sex, age, ethnicity, income, education levels etc. Disaggregated data enables analysis of how certain interventions will affect certain sub-groups (e.g. men and women) differently.
Dispute - Disagreements that take place between parties in conflict. Adisputeisthe manifestation, in words or actions, of unresolved conflict. The word “dispute” is often used interchangeably with the word “conflict”. However, it is more appropriately viewed as the product of conflict (such as disagreement, argument, or debate), when competing interests damage relationships, or escalate to rights-based or power-based resolutions.
Document - A piece of written, printed, or electronic matter that provides data and/or information
Dry season months - Six calendar months from December to May (pendingissuerelatingtoimplementation of Article 6A of the 1995 Mekong Agreement).
Economic analysis - is used to determine the costs and benefits of a project, policy or plan. CBA is usually a quantitative method that applies a monetary value to all project’s costs and benefits. A project is assessed as economically viable if the benefits exceed its costs
Ecosystem connectivity – The interconnection of different habitats to allow species movement. This includes creating and managing habitat corridors and buffers, as well as preventing further fragmentation of habitats by development and other land-uses
Ecosystem integrity -is defined as the long term ability of an ecosystem to self-support and maintain an adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity, and functional organization favourably comparable to that of nearby natural habitats
Electricity dispatch systems – the system in place for dispatch of electricity from the hydropower station,whichmaybeacentrallycontrolledintegrateddispatchcentreformultipleprojectsorasingleofftakerarrangement
Emergency Plan - An Emergency Plan should include; public safety signage, exclusion zones, dam release notification and warning systems, community awareness, emergency preparedness, flood management, monitoring, inspections, training, incident response, communication, and allocation of responsibilities.
Energy Options– examples include energy efficiency measures, increased efficiency in existing generation facilities, different types of energy such as thermal power or wind, no energy development, transmission and distribution options
Energy options assessment criteria – optimize resource use efficiency; energy payback ration; provision of ancillary services; optimize transmission efficiency; economic viability; minimize carbon intensity and greenhouse gas emission; reduce social and environmental costs
Energy services – examples include provision of electricity to domestic or export markets; provision of grid stability; provision of peak load; provision of ancillary benefits such as spinning reserve,systemregulationand improved efficiency
Environment: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) The conditions of water and land resources, air, flora, and fauna that exists in a particular region.
Environmental flow - Environmental flow is the amount of water needed in a river to maintain healthy ecosystems.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - means a national procedure for assessing the likely impacts on biophysical, social and economic aspects of a proposed project/activity.
Environmental hotspot - areas featuring exceptional concentrations of endemic species or biodiversity or providing key ecosystem services and are under threat from human activity. This may include critical habitats for threatened species, areas of key importance for maintaining livelihoods, wetland ecosystems
Environmental indicator – Anenvironmentalindicatorisaparameter, or a value derived from parameters, that points to, provides information about and/or describes the state of the environment, and has a significance extending beyond that directly associated with any given parametric value. The term may encompass indicators of environmental pressures,conditionsand responses.
Escalation - Increased intensity of conflict Both avoidance and lack of cooperation can lead to escalation through misunderstanding, hard feelings, and hardening of positions.
Examples of consumptive water uses – irrigation, urban water supply, rural water supply, industrial uses, livestock
Examples of evidence – national legislation, policy and regulations; RBO governance framework; budgets and resourcing plans for line agenciesandRBOs; Transboundary procedures, e.g. data sharing, notification; evidence of meetings; hydropower plans, SEA reports, monitoring and auditing reports; compliance reports; hydropower monitoring reports and CSR policy; hydropower agreements (PDAs and PPAs) and MOUs; national policies relevant to hydropower; capacity building plans for line agencies andRBOs
Examples of non-consumptive water uses – fishing and aquaculture, tourism and recreation, flood control, ecosystem maintenance, cultural and spiritual, navigation
Facilitator - A trained specialist who helps people design effective meetings and problem-solving sessions, and then acts as the meeting leader on behalf of the group. Facilitators may be engaged before parties are in any defined conflict. Facilitators generally limit themselves to the design and management of the process. Facilitatorsareinchargeoftheprocess, but are not in charge of the group.
Flow duration curve - The flow duration curve is a plot of flows ranked from highest to lowest.Thex axis is %oftimeequalledorexceededandtheyaxisis flows (m3/s).
Flow frameworks - Established thresholds for flows at each of the selected hydrological stations defining flow conditions at those stations, which are considered acceptable by the MRC Member Countries in relation to Article 6 of the 1995 Mekong Agreement, and/or which cause certain actions to be taken if transgressed.
Food security - at the individual, household, national, regional and global levels [is achieved] when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
Good Faith Engagement –engagementthatisundertakenwithanhonestintenttoreachamutuallysatisfactoryunderstandingon the issues of concern
Good offices - Help or support or a neutral setting that is provided by outside individuals or organizations in helping to resolve a dispute. The United Nations is an example of Good Offices. Since the United Nations is widely believed to be fair, impartial, and committed to peace, it often has the prestige needed to successfully intervene in situations where others would not be accepted. Good offices can sometimes refer to a neutral, safe physical space provided by outside parties to host discussions.
Habitat modification – refers to changes in fish habitat, examples include conversion of a stretch of river from a river channel to a reservoir, changes in deep pools and rapids; changes in food chain species, changes in flow and availability of nutrients
High value tributaries - are those that if left undeveloped and in a close to natural state will make a significant contribution to the overall ecosystem integrity and biodiversity of the river basin which may offset the loss of
- Flow velocity
-Related hydrological and meteorological parameters
Hydropower project options assessment criteria – siting on tributaries instead of mainstream, multiple projects on one tributary as opposed to single projects on multiple tributaries, minimise the area flooded per unit of energy produced, prioritise alternatives that do not pose threat to vulnerable social groups; maximise multiple use opportunities, prioritise options that minimise population displacement; prioritise options that maintain connectivity in the basin for migrating species and sediment; avoid sites downstream of major sediment production zones; avoid impact to exceptional cultural heritage; avoid impact to threatened species and critical habitats
Indirect costs and benefits – examples include creation of new industries,employmentand trade as a result of new roads and infrastructure, economic displacement after a time period as a result of changes to water availability, loss of community harmony or stability
Information: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) data interpreted, processed and refined, and then displayed by the competent authorities having ownership or possession thereof, which is required for exchange and sharing for the purpose of the implementation of the Mekong Agreement.
Institutional capacity – in the context of hydropower and IWRMrelatestothefunctionsandcapacity of the various institutions formed at different levels from transboundary to local. It includes the effectiveness of the regulatory and planning frameworks in delivering sustainable water and energy development outcomes in a predictable, responsible, equitable and timely way. Examples include –crosssectoralco-ordination, clear allocation of roles and responsibilities, adequate human and financial resources in government agencies, monitoring and evaluation processes in the planning cycle
Integrated - merged, interspersed and embedded into something.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) – a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems
Inter-reservoir operating rules –rules established for coordinated operations and water management between reservoirs in a cascade
Inter-Basin Water Diversion: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) The diversion of water from the mainstream or a tributary of the Mekong river system into another basin.
Involuntary resettlement plan – as a minimum,are-settlement plan or agreement should include: project description; scope of land acquisition and re-settlement; alternatives considered;socio-economic information and profile of affected communities; information disclosure,consultationand participation; grievance re-dress mechanisms; legal framework; entitlements, assistance and benefits; relocation of housing and settlements; income restoration and rehabilitation; re-settlement budget and financing plan; institutional arrangements;
implementation schedule; and monitoring and reporting of outcomes
Livelihood- refers to the capabilities, assets (stores, resources,claimsand access)andactivities required for a means of living.
Master catalogue – MRC centralized database and gateway for data queries, sharing and download, it contained all types of available quality assured dataset, it is publicly available through online with list of data category/glossary.
Mainstreamof the Mekong River:
The river flowing through six countries, namely China, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia and Viet Nam to the sea via My Thuan and My Tho in Viet Nam.
Meaningful consultation – is a process that (i) begins early in the project cycle; (ii) provides timely disclosure of relevant and adequate information that is understandable and readily accessible to affected people; (iii) is undertaken in an atmosphere free of intimidation or coercion; (iv) is gender inclusive and responsive, tailored to the needs of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups; and (v) enables the incorporation of all relevant views of affected people and other stakeholders into decision making such as project design, mitigation measures, the sharing of development opportunities and benefits, and implementation issues. Particular attention will be paid to the needs of disadvantaged or vulnerable groups, especially those below the poverty line, the landless, the elderly, female headed households, women and children, Indigenous Peoples and those without legal title to land.(ADB 2009).
Mechanisms for cross border cooperation - examples include RBO, committees, transboundary agreements, agreed procedures for notification and consultation
• use the services of a third party to design and manage the process;
• are assisted by a third party to develop and recommend solutions; and
Mediator - Aneutralpersonskilledintheuseofdisputeresolutiontechniqueswhoassists parties involved in a dispute or conflict. The parties may simply have reached an impasse to find common ground or compromise.
Mediators serve to help parties craft appropriate solutions, often recommending specific solutions, but have no power to render a decision. A mediator is engaged after parties are in conflict. Some distinctions between facilitator and mediator:
• The venue is different. Facilitators manage processes for a wide range of meetings, workshops, or collaborative problem-solving sessions. Mediators lead negotiations.
• Facilitators may come from one of the participating organizations, so long as all parties are comfortable that he or she is neutral on the issue. A mediator rarely has an ongoing relationship with any of the parties.
• Facilitation is useful even if the parties are not well defined. In a public meeting, for example, people decide for
themselves whether to attend.Inmediationthereare designated representatives of the various parties.
• Infacilitationthe issues may also be less well defined. The outcome of a facilitated session may simply include sharing of feelings, team building, identifying options,orreachingagreement. The outcome of mediation is a decision by the parties. Both facilitation and mediation are valuable forms of assistance. They simply represent different levels of formality and structure in the kind of assistance that is given.
Mekong Spirit - is a combination of very a combination of collective courage, statesmanship,perseveranceand goodwill among the participating Mekong states, reflecting their collective desire for mutual understanding and accommodation to achieve a shared vision and goal for the Mekong.
Mekong Tributary: A natural stream of the Mekong River System. For the purposes of the present Procedures, a tributary as decided by the JC is a natural stream of the Mekong River System whose flows have a significant impact on the mainstream. This definition is subject to be reviewed and agreed upon after some time of implementation if any concern is raised.
Moderator - A person who presides over an assembly or meeting, especially a legislative body. Moderators are not actively involved in the design or implementation of decision processes, but can often set the tone and expectations of a meeting. A moderator is often a senior official, a well-known or respected individual, or someone of Rank
Member Country(ies) - means the signatory country(ies) to the 1995 Mekong Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin.
Monthly flow -The sum of the daily flows in a month divided by the number of days in the month (m3/s). Identical to average flow for the month.
Moving averag - A method to smooth variations. The average is calculated, for example, over five years. For each year after this, the earliest value is dropped from the calculation and the most recent one is added in, again to make an average over five years;forexample: 1988-93, 1989-94, and 1990-95. Also called running average.
Multiple use – refers to a hydropower project that is designed and operated for other uses in addition to hydropower and may include; irrigation storage, navigation; flood control; flow regulation; reservoir fisheries, recreation.
Negotiation - Process where parties work directly with each other, often but not necessarily with the help of a third party (a facilitator or mediator), to exchange ideas, views, promises, and problems surrounding a conflict or dispute. In this voluntary process, the parties seek to develop mutually acceptable solutions that meet as many of the disputants’ interests as possible. If the services of a third party are used, it is called assisted negotiation.
negotiation, the parties.
• may or may not use the services of a third party to design and manage the process;
• develop their own solutions; and
Examples: Negotiation occurs between people all the time--between parents and children, between husbands and wives, between workers and employers, between nations. It can be relatively cooperative, as it is when both sides seek a solution that is mutually beneficial (commonly called win-win or cooperative bargaining), or it can be confrontational (commonlycalledwinloseoradversarial)bargaining,wheneachsideseekstoprevailovertheOther
Negotiator - A person who has been given authority to negotiate on behalf of an organization or agency. Negotiators are representatives and are not neutral. Negotiators are generally working to maximize the positions of the parties they represent. Negotiatorsmayworkunassistedintryingtoreachagreement with each other or can work with a third party.
Notification: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) Timely providing information by a riparian to the Joint Committee on its proposed use of water according to the format,contentand procedures set forth in the Rules for Water Utilisation and Inter-Basin Diversions under Article 26.
Options assessment – Energy options assessment is a process to assess options and alternatives to hydropower in the energy mix to meet the energy demand, need for ancillary services or to earn export revenue in basins where electricity is exported. Project options assessment is a process to assess options and alternatives to different project sites and designs
Performance targets for water management - includes compliance with reservoir level agreements, minimum flow releases, ramp down rates, minimum operating levels
PES Scheme- payment for ecological services (PES) is a scheme whereby a group or individual dependent on a natural resource for its livelihood will pay another individual or group a sum of money to prevent damage to that natural resource. For example, a downstream community dependent on drinking water from a river paying upstream farmers not to use chemical fertilizers that would pollute the water
PNCPA Procedure - Mekong River Commission [MRC] “Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement”) means the prior consultation process, in which the countries will jointly review any development project proposed for the mainstream, with an aim to reach a consensus on whether or not it should proceed, and if so, under what conditions. Prior consultation is neither a right to veto the use nor a unilateral right to use water by any riparian without taking into consideration other riparian’s rights.
Policy and planning approaches to maximise local level benefits – examples include procurement policies to favour local employment and use of local products and services during project construction; local training and capacity building programs; strategies to maximise local infrastructure development e.g. roads, bridges; policies to improve provision of social services in affected areas, e.g. schools, clinics
Policy and regulations for environmental protection – examples include threatened species and protected area legislation, EIA legislation, threshold limits set and enforced.
Potentially Affected Country(ies) - means the Member Country(ies) likely to be affected by potential transboundary environmental impact of a proposed project/activity.
Procedures for transboundary water management – examples from the Mekong region include Prior Notification and Prior Consultation Agreement (PNPCA), Procedures for Water Quality (PWQ), Procedures for Maintenance of Flow on the Mainstream (PMFM)
Processes that control erosion, sediment transport and deposition – examples include flow velocity, bed slope, floodplain form, channel characteristics, land use, geology and run-off.
Project agreements – examples include Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), Power Development Agreement (PDA), Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), and Concession Agreement (CA)
Proponent - means a physical or legal person who proposes a project/activity for consideration or acceptance or physical or legal person who implements or operates such project/activity.
Proposed project/activity - means any project or activity proposed by the proponent in the Country of Origin which is subject to national environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the Country of Origin.
Proposed use: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) Any proposal for a definite use of the waters of the Mekong River system by any riparian, excluding domestic and minor uses of water not having a significant impact on mainstream flows.
Public Participation - means a process through which stakeholders gain influence and take part in decision making in the planning, implementation,monitoringand evaluation of development projects/activities.
Reasonable and equitable use of an international watercourse – is use with a view to attaining optimal and sustainable utilization and benefits, taking into account the interests of the riparian States concerned and consistent with adequate protection of the watercourse. It includes the right to use the watercourse and the duty to co-operate in the protection and development of the watercourse
Relevant and Key Definitionsfromthe Mekong Agreement: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) Agreement under Article 5: A decision of the Joint Committee resulting from prior consultation and evaluation on any proposed use for inter-basin diversions during the wet season from the mainstream as well as for intrabasin use or inter-basin diversions of these waters during the dry season. The objective of this agreement is to achieve an optimum use and prevention of waste of the waters through a dynamic and practical consensus in conformity with the Rules for Water Utilisation and Inter-Basin Diversions set forth in Article 26.
Reservoir management issues – examples include water quality issues including eutrophication, bank slumping and erosion, recreational and commercial reservoir uses, public safety, flood management, navigation, thermal stratification, public access, greenhouse gas emissions and debris management
Reservoir storage characteristics – includes; flooded area, bathymetry, full supply level, minimum operating level, debris control structures
River reaches affected by hydropower operations – are assessed on a project basis and may extend several hundred kilometres downstream for large projects depending on the scheme size, project design and operation, the characteristics of the river system, the extent of seasonal storage and flow regulation, use of diversions etc
Sediment production zones – areas of a basin that contribute sediment to the river system as a result of erosion
Stakeholder - means any person, group or institution that has an interest in an activity, project or program. This includes both intended beneficiaries and intermediaries, those positively affected, and those involved and/or those who are generally excluded from the decision-making process.
Standards: (Refer to 1995 Mekong Agreement and Procedures) guidelines for data handling that are recognised as best practice in their relevant scientific or technical disciplines, with the objective to minimise the transaction costs of using data.
Timing of environmental and social plans – means that sufficient time is allowed to implement environmental and social plans before reservoir filling commences. Examples include the resettlement actions plan and arrangements for populations to be relocated to suitable accommodation before reservoir filling commences and sufficient time for vegetation and wildlife removal
Threshold - A value (or limit) of water level or discharge that will cause some action when crossed.
Transboundary environmental impact - means significant environmental impacts/changes originating within the territory of one Member Countrywhichpotentiallyaffect other Member Countries.Theenvironmental impacts/changes include effects on water quality and quantity, flow regimes, river morphology, biodiversity,aquaticecologyorfurtherconsequentimpactstopeople’slivelihoodsdepending on the Mekong River and its tributaries.
Transboundary ESIA – an assessment of impacts that may occur outside national borders of the country hosting a hydropower project or group of projects
Transboundary RBO –anintergovernment agency formed between national governments sharing a river basin to facilitate co-operation for river basin planning and management. Members may include all or some states sharing the river basin
Transboundary water use agreements – an agreement signed between countries sharing a river basin which provides a mutually agreed framework for co-operation on international rivers, e.g. the 1995 Mekong Agreement
Water services – examples include water storage, flood management, regulation of flow, irrigation supply, navigation, water supply, water for fisheries and floodplain agriculture
is a combination of very high degrees of collective courage, vision, statesmanship, perseverance and goodwill among the participating Mekong states
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